I've mentioned this in several posts. The last year I have coded primarily in ruby after spending over a decade in C#. See this post for my general observations contrasting Windows and Linux culture. Here I want to focus on language version as well as dependency management particularly comparing nuget to gem packages. This is a topic that has really tripped me up on several occasions. I used to think that ruby was inferior in its ability to avoid dependency conflicts, but in fact I just misunderstood it. Gems and Nuget are deceptively similar but there are some concepts that Ruby separates into different tools like Bundler and that Nuget consolidates into the core package manager with some assistance from Visual Studio.
In this post I'll draw some comparisons and also contrast the differences of managing different versions of ruby as opposed to different .Net runtimes and then explore package dependency management.
.Net Runtimes vs. Ruby Versions
Individual versions of .net are the moral equivalent of different ruby versions. However .net has just one physical install per runtime/architecture saved to a common place on disk. Ruby can have multiple installations of the same version and stored in any location.
In .net, which runtime version to use is determined at application compile time (there are also ways to change this at runtime). One specifies which .net version to compile against and then that version will be loaded whenever the compiled program is invoked. In .net, the program "owns" the process and the runtime libraries are loaded into that process. This is somewhat orchestrated by the Windows registry which holds the location of the runtime on disk and therefore knows where to find the base runtime libraries to load. Note that I'm focusing on .net on windows and not mono which can run .Net on linux.
Ruby versions can be located anywhere on disk. They do not involve the registry at all. Which version used depends entirely on which ruby executable is invoked. Unlike .net, the ruby user application is not the process entry point. Instead one always invokes the ruby binary (ruby.exe if on windows) and passes ruby files (*.rb) to load and run. Usually one controls which version is the system wide used version by putting that ruby bin folder on the path.
Loading the runtime, step by step
Lets look at both .net and ruby and see what exactly happens when you invoke a program.
- Invoke an exe
- create process
- .net bootstrapper (corExeMain) loads .net runtime into process
- .net code (msil) is run
This glosses over some details but the main point is that each .net runtime resides in a single location on disk and each compiled .net program includes a bootstrapper called corExeMain that makes some system calls to locate that runtime.
Also note that it is very likely that the .exe invoked is not necessarily "the app". ASP.Net is a good example. Assuming a traditional IIS web server is hosting your ASP.Net application. There is an IIS worker process spawned by iis that hosts an asp.net application. A ASP.net developer did not write this worker process. They wrote code that is compiled into .DLL libraries. The ASP.Net worker process discovers these DLLs and loads them into the .Net runtime that they host.
Lets take the case of a popular ruby executable bundler.
- Invoke bundle install on the command line
- Assuming C:\Ruby21-x64\bin is on the PATH, C:\Ruby21-x64\bin\bundler.bat is called. A "binstub" that ruby creates.
- This is a thin wrapper that calls ruby.exe C:/Ruby21-x64/bin/bundler
- This bundler file is another thin wrapper that loads the bundler ruby gem and loads the bundler file in that gem's bin directory
- This bundler file contains the entry point of the bundler application
Managing multiple versions of the runtime on the same machine
.net places its copies of runtime libraries in the Microsoft.NET directory of the system drive. A .net developer will compile their library targeting a specific runtime version. Also, a configuration file can be created for any .Net .exe file that can inform which runtime to load. The developer just needs to insure that the .net version they use exists on the machine.
With Ruby, its all a matter of pointing to the ruby bin file in the installed ruby directory tree you want to use and this may be influenced by one's PATH settings when not using absolute file paths.
One popular and convenient method of managing multiple ruby versions is using a tool called rvm. This is really meant for consumption on linux machines. I do believe it can be used with cygwin on windows machines. Personally I'm not a big cygwin fan and prefer to just use a linux VM where I can use native rvm if I need to switch ruby versions.
rvm exposes commands that can install different versions of ruby and easily switch one's working environment from one version to another.
One big challenge in ruby is distributing an application. When one writes a ruby program either as a library to be consumed or as a command line executable, it is most common to package this code into one or more ruby gems. However, a gem is just a collection of .rb files and some other supporting files. The gem does not contain the ruby runtime itself. If I were to give someone a .gem file who was unfamiliar with ruby, they would not have a clue as to what to do with that file, but I would still love them.
That person, god bless them, would need to install ruby and then install that gem into the ruby installation.
So one way that ruby applications have begun to distribute themselves is via an omnibus. An omnibus installation ships with a full ruby runtime embedded in the distributed app. Its application code is still packaged as one or more gems and they are located in the special gems directory of this ruby installation along with all of its dependent gems. This also ensures that all the dependent gems and their required versions are preinstalled to eliminate the risk of dependency conflicts. Two example omnibus applications that I regularly work with are Chef and Vagrant.
So chef might have the following directory structure:
Upon installation, chef/bin is added to the PATH so that calling chef from the command line will invoke the chef.bat file. That chef.bat file is a thin wrapper that calls chef/embedded/bin/ruby.exe and loads the ruby in chef/bin/chef which then calls into the chef gem.
So the advantage of the omnibus is a complete ruby environment that is not at risk of containing user loaded gems. The disadvantage is that any ruby app even if it is tiny needs to distribute itself with a complete ruby runtime which is not small.
Before we dive into nuget and gem packages, we need to address assemblies (.DLLs) which only exist in .net. How do assemblies, .gems and .nupkg (nuget) files map to one another? Assemblies are the final container of application logic and are what physically compose the built .net application. Assemblies were at one time a collection of code files that have been compiled down to IL(intermediate language) and packaged as a .DLL file. In package management terms, assemblies are what gets packaged but they are not the package.
Assemblies can exist in various places on disk. Typically they will exist in one of two places, the Global Assembly Cache (GAC) or in an application's bin directory. When a .net application is compiled, every assembly includes an embedded manifest of its version and the versions of all dependent assemblies it was built with. At runtime, .net will try to locate assemblies of these versions unless there is configuration metadata telling it otherwise.
The .net runtime will always search the GAC first (there are tricks to subvert this) unless the assembly is not strong named and then fall back to the bin paths configured for the application. For details on assembly loading see this MSDN article. Side note: The GAC is evil and I am inclined to look down upon those who use it and their children. Other than that, I have no strong opinions on the matter.
So software teams have to maintain build processes that ensure that any version of its application is always built with an agreed upon set of assemblies. Some of these assemblies may be written by the same application team, others might be system assemblies that ship with the OS, others might be official microsoft assemblies freely available from Microsoft Downloads, and others might be from other commercial or open source projects. Keeping all of these straight can be a herculean effort. Often it comes down to just putting all of these dependencies (in their compiled form) in source control in the same repo as the consuming application. For the longest time - like a decade - this was version management in .net. and it remains so for many today.
This suffers several disadvantages. Bloated source control for one thing. These assemblies can eventually take over the majority of a repository's space (multiple gigabytes). They do not lend themselves to being preserved as deltas and so alot of their data is duplicated in the repo. Eventually, this crushes the productivity of builds and developer work flow since so much time is wasted pulling these bits down from source control.
One strategy to overcome this inefficiency is for larger teams or groups of teams to place all of their dependent assemblies in a common directory. This can save space and duplication since different teams that depend on the same assembly will basically share the same physical file. But now teams must version dependencies at the same cadence and eventually find themselves bound to a monolith leading to other practices that impede the maintainability of the application and make engineers cry and want to kill baby seals.
Enter package management. Package management performs several valuable functions. Here are just a few:
- Dependency discovery - finding dependencies
- Dependency delivery - downloading dependencies
- Dependency storage and versioning outside of source control
Ruby was the first (between itself and .net) to implement this with RubyGems and later, inspired by ruby, .net introduced nuget.
A little history: ngem was the first incarnation of nuget that had several starts and stops. David Laribee came up with Nubular as the name for ngem in 2008 and it stuck. Later Dru Sellers, Rob Reynolds, Chris Patterson, Nick Parker, and Bil Simser picked it up as a ruby project instead of .net and started moving really fast.
In the meantime Microsoft had quietly been working on a project called NPack and had been doing so for about four months when they contacted the Nu team. Nu was getting wildly popular in a matter of a few short weeks. These teams combined forces because it was the best possible thing for the community - and to signify the joining forces it was renamed nupack.
Shortly thereafter it was discovered that Caltech had a tool called nucleic acid package or nupack for short so it was renamed to nuget which is what it remains today.
My guess, totally unsubstantiated, is that one reason why ruby was the first to develop this is because ruby has no assembly concept. Ruby is interpreted and therefore all of the individual code files are stored with the application. With assemblies, its at least somewhat sane to have a unit of dependency be a single file that has a version embedded inside and that is not easy to tamper with and break.
Similarities between gems and nugets
There is so much that is similar here that it is easy to be deceived that there is more similar than there really is. So first lets cover some things that truly are the same. Keep in mind nuget was originally implemented as gems that could be stored on rubygems.org so there is a reason for the similarities.
Both have a "spec" file stored at the root of the package that contain metadata about the package. Ruby calls this a gemspec and and nuget a nuspec. The key bits of data which both support are package version, name, content manifest and other packages this one depends on.
Both gems and nuget packages can be discovered and downloaded from a http source or feed. These feeds expose an API allowing package consumers to query an http endpoint for which packages it has and which versions and a means of downloading the package file.
Both dependency resolvers are based on semantic versioning. However they use different nomenclature for specifying allowed ranges.
Both have a CLI and clearly the Nuget.exe cli commands come from ruby heriatage but have diverged. In Ruby the gem CLI plays a MUCH more central role than it does with Nuget. But both have the core capabilities of building, installing, uninstalling, publishing and querying package stores.
A case of cognitive dissonance and adjusting to gems
So for those with experience working on .net projects inside Visual Studio and managing dependencies with nuget, the story of dependency management is fairly streamlined. There are definitely some gotchas but lets look at the .net workflow that many are used to practicing with two points of focus. Application creation and application contributor. One involving the initial setup of an app's dependencies and the other capturing the experience of someone wanting to contribute to that application.
Setting up and managing dependencies
One begins by creating a "project" in visual studio that will be responsible for building your code. Then when you want to add dependencies, you use the package manager gui inside visual studio to find the package and add it to your project. To be clear, you can do this from the command console in visual studio too. Installing these will also install their dependencies and resolve versions using the version constraints specified in each package's nuspec.
Once this is done you can return to the nuget package manager in visual studio to see all the packages you depend on and that will include any packages they depend on as well recursively. Here you will also see if any of these packages have been updated and you will have the opportunity to upgrade them.
All of this setup is reflected in a collection of files in your visual studio project and also solution (a "container" for multiple projects in a single visual studio instance). Each project has a packages.config file that lists all package dependencies and their version. While this includes all dependencies in the "tree", the list is flat.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <packages> <package id="log4net" version="2.0.3" targetFramework="net40" /> <package id="Microsoft.Web.Xdt" version="2.1.1" targetFramework="net40" /> <package id="NuGet.Core" version="2.8.2" targetFramework="net40" /> <package id="PublishedApplications" version="22.214.171.124" targetFramework="net40" /> <package id="Rx-Core" version="2.1.30214.0" targetFramework="net40" /> <package id="Rx-Interfaces" version="2.1.30214.0" targetFramework="net40" /> <package id="Rx-Linq" version="2.1.30214.0" targetFramework="net40" /> <package id="SimpleInjector" version="2.5.0" targetFramework="net40" /> </packages>
The visual studio solution includes a packages folder that acts as a local repository for each package and also includes a repositories.config file that simply lists the path to each of the packages.config files inside of your project.
Many .net projects do not include this projects folder in source control because each packages.config file include everything necessary to pull these packages from a nuget feed.
Contributing to an existing project with nuget dependencies
So now lets say I clone the above project with plans to submit a PR. Assuming I'm using automatic package restore (the current default), visual studio will download all the packages in the packages.config files to my own packages folder. It will pull the exact same versions of those packages that were commited to source control. Perfect! I can be pretty confident that when I commit my project and its dependent package manifests, others who clone this project will have the same experience.
Of course there are other nuances that can play into this like with multiple repositories that can also be configured but hopefully you get the general gist here.
Transplanting the same workflow to ruby
So I create a gem in ruby and declare some gems as dependencies in my gemspec file. I install my gem by running gem install and that adds my gem and its dependencies and their dependencies and so forth to my local gem repository. Just like with nuget, the version constraints declaired in my gemspec and the gemspecs of my dependencies are honored and used to resolve the gem versions downloaded. Everything works great and all my tests pass so I commit my gem to source control.
Now I'm on a different machine and clone my gem. I do a gem install of my gem which puts my gem into my local repo and also download and installs all my dependencies. Now it just so happens that the http gem, one of my dependencies, updated the day before and its update bumped its own version constraint on http_parser which had an undiscovered bug only occurring on machine names beginning with princess that injected random princess images into the html body. Well imagine my surprise when I invoke my gem to find princess images littering my screen because, naturally, I happen to be using my princess_elsa machine.
How did this happen?
Well gem install has no packages.config equivalent. Thus the gem versions I had initially downloaded, were not locked and when I ran gem install later, it simply installed all gems that complied with the version constraints in the gemspec. The bumped http gem still lied inside my constraint range so the fact that I got the different http_parser was completely legal. Its at this point that I start trashing ruby on twitter and my #IHateRuby slack channel.
Bundler fixes this. To be fair, I had been told about bundler in my very first Chef course. However, I didn't really get it. I wasn't able to map it to anything in my .net experience and it also seemed at the time that gem install just worked fine on its own. Why do I need this extra thing especially when I dont fully understand what it is doing or why I need it?
Today I would say, think of bundler being to gem what the visual studio nuget packet manager is to nuget.exe. Ruby, has no project system like Visual Studio (praise jesus). One could also point out that neither does C#. However, because its a royal pain to compile raw C# files using the command line compiler csc.exe, the vast majority of C# devs use visual studio and we often take for granted the extra services that IDE offers. I know the next generation of .net tooling is aiming to fix all this but I'm focusing on what everyone works with today.
Bundler works with two files that can be shipped with a gem: Gemfile and Gemfile.lock. A Gemfile includes a list of gems, gem sources and version constraints. This file augments the gem dependencies in a gemspec file. A typical ruby workflow is to clone a gem and then run bundle install. Bundle install works very similar to gem install and additionally creates a Gemfile.lock file in the root of your gem that includes the exact versions downloaded. This is the equivalent of a nuget packages.config. If the Gemfile.lock already exists, bundle install will not resolve gem versions but will simply fetch all the versions listed in the lock file. In fact, the Gemfile.lock is even more sophisticated than packages.config. It reveals the source feed from which each gem was downloaded and also represents the list of gems as a hierarchy. This is helpful because now if I need to troubleshoot where the gem dependencies originate, the lock file will reveal which parent gem caused a downloaded gems to be installed.
GEM remote: https://rubygems.org/ remote: http://126.96.36.199:8081/artifactory/api/gems/localgems/ specs: addressable (2.3.7) berkshelf (3.2.3) addressable (~> 2.3.4) berkshelf-api-client (~> 1.2) buff-config (~> 1.0) buff-extensions (~> 1.0) buff-shell_out (~> 0.1) celluloid (~> 0.16.0) celluloid-io (~> 0.16.1) cleanroom (~> 1.0) faraday (~> 0.9.0) minitar (~> 0.5.4) octokit (~> 3.0) retryable (~> 2.0) ridley (~> 4.0) solve (~> 1.1) thor (~> 0.19) berkshelf-api-client (1.2.1) faraday (~> 0.9.0)
This ruby workflow does not end with bundle install. The other staple command is bundle exec. bundle exec is called in front of a call to any ruby executable bin.
bundle exec rspec /spec/*_spec.rb
Doing this adjusts one's shell environment so that only the gems in the installed bundle are loaded when calling the ruby executable - in this case rspec.
This might seem odd to a .net dev unless we remind ourselves how the ruby runtime is fundamentally different from .net as described earlier. Namely that all installed gems are available to any ruby program run within a single ruby installation. Remember there can be multiple on the same machine and the particular ruby.exe called determines which ruby install is used. For a given version of ruby, its common practice for ruby devs to use the same installation. The local ruby repository is like a .net GAC but scoped to a ruby install instead of an entire machine. So even though I call bundle install with a Gemfile.lock, I may have a newer version of a gem than the version specified in the lock file. Now I have both and chances are that its the newer version that will be loaded if I simply invoke a ruby program that depends on it. So using bundle exec insures that only the gems explicitly listed in the lock file will be loaded when calling a ruby bin file.
More differences between ruby gems and nuget
I have to admit that the more that I work with ruby and become comfortable with the syntax and idioms, the more I like it. I really like the gem semantics. Here are some things I find superior to nuget:
- gemspecs and Gemfiles are written in ruby. While all nuget artifacts are xml files. This means I can use ruby logic in these fies. For example, instead of including a bunch of xml nodes to define the files in my package I can include "s.files = `git ls-files`.split($\)" to indicate that all files in the repo should be included in the packaged gem.
- gems separate the notion of runtime dependencies and development dependencies (things like rake, rspec and other development time tools). Also you can group dependencies using your own arbitrary labels and then call bundle and omit one or more groups from the bundle.
- Not only do I have more flexibility in assigning individual dependencies in a Gemfile to different gem sources (feeds), bundler allows me to specify git URLs and a git ref (commit, branch, tag, etc.) and the gem source will be pulled from that url and ref. This is great for development.
There is alot more that could be mentioned here regarding the differences between nuget and gems. Its a rather hot topic in some circles. See this post as an example. My intent for this post is really to give a birdseye, view of the key differences especially in how it relates to dependency resolution. I hope others find this informative and helpful.